Thorcon the doable molten salt reactor executive summary jack devanney. It turns out, that the freeze protection has significant impact on the net energy production of systems with molten salt. New solar plant uses molten salt to store energy springwise. The plant can feed power to the grid any time of day or night. These thorium reactor pros and cons prove that there is a lot of potential in this technology. The team worked to create a team of suppliers capable of deploying a commercially ready nitrate salt central receiver technology that can be competitive in the current power marketplace. Nevadas new molten salt solar plant will produce power. First new thorium salt reactor in 40 years comes online.
Solar power tower design basis document revision 0 prepared by alexis b. Salt leak shuts down firstofitskind solar plant near tonopah. A molten salt reactor msr is a class of nuclear fission reactor in which the primary nuclear reactor coolant andor the fuel is a molten salt mixture. Phoenix area concentrating solar power plant on line in 2011 power engineering reports progress on the arizona public service aps concentrating solar power csp plant to be built and.
Challenges in the thermal energy storage for solar power. Domestic material content in moltensalt concentrating solar. Worlds first molten salt solar plant produces power at night. Could nextgen reactors spark revival in nuclear power.
High efficiency nuclear power plants using liquid fluoride thorium reactor technology albert j. Phase change material pcms are also used in molten salt energy storage. The complexity of these thermal solar plants is rather high, as they combine. Moir and edward teller lawrence livermore national laboratory, p. The two designs have equivalent generating and thermal energy storage capacities. It also fostered commercial interest in power towers. The project is estimated to require an investment of usd two billion and is expected to be operational in 2020. This work focuses on energy storage systems based on molten salt, and.
Coal is used in electricity generation worldwide and many power plants in developing countries are very old. This thermal storage is commonly used in molten salt power plants. New molten salt thorium reactor powers up for first time. Concentrating solar power provides utilityscale electricity and energy storage commercial csp plants in operation with over 9 gwh of thermal energy storage no safety incidents of molten nitrate salt storage since 2008 no safety incidents of solid media thermal storage 16. Msrs offer multiple advantages over conventional nuclear power plants, although for historical reasons further explanation needed, they have not been deployed the concept was first established in the 1950s. A lftr is a type of molten salt reactor, significantly safer than a typical nuclear reactor. United states of america in all subject inventions related to. Engineering aspects and thermal performance of molten salt transfer. Concentrated solar power generation flowserve corporation. Csp uses concentrated heat from the sun as an alternative heat source for the. Molten salt circulation pumps circulate the primary heat transfer fluid molten salt through the solar receiver to heat it up and to either feed the solar steam generator, store the energy during the high sun radiation hours cold salt pumps, or deliver it after the sunset hot salt pumps.
The project is being cost shared by a consortium of utilities and the u. Mar 08, 2011 this type of power plant uses concave parabolic mirrors that focus sunlight on an absorber tube at the mirrors focus. Mar 07, 20 ecofriendly nature molten salt is nontoxic, nonflammable energy storage medium. Its a hefty price for a 5 mw power plant, even compared to other csp plants, but. Zavoico nexant san francisco, ca 94104 abstract this report contains the design basis for a generic molten salt solar power tower. Terrestrial energy leading the way to a bright energy future. The coal fired power plant cirebon unit 2, with a capacity of 1,000 megawatt, is a power plant project in the west java region of cirebon, indonesia.
At that point, the tanks might need corrosion repair, so the molten salt would be cooled off a process that takes months then emptied and then returned to the tanks to supply another 30 or more years. Rarick2 and rajmohan rangarajan3 cleveland state university, cleveland, ohio 44115 an overall system analysis approach is used to propose potential conceptual designs of. First molten salt power plant approved in california. Central receiver system solar power plant using molten salt as heat transfer fluid article pdf available in journal of solar energy engineering 2 may 2008 with 7,918 reads. The salt is a combination of sodium and potassium nitrate, with a. Molten salt instead of thermal oil in concentrated solar.
They are seen as a promising technology today principally as a thorium fuel cycle prospect or for using spent lwr fuel. Juhaszl nasa glenn research center, cleveland, ohio 445 richard a. For countries with nuclear capabilities, starting or reopening the research into the various methods of fueling a thorium reactor may be somewhat costly, but could also be lifechanging to future generations. Frankenthal, germany and oakville, ontario, canada march 3, 2020 ksb and terrestrial energy have signed a memorandum of understanding mou to collaborate on the supply of primary pumps for use in the integral molten salt reactor imsr, a generation iv advanced nuclear power plant. Part of the molten salt is substituted by a solid filler up to 75% with chargedischarge processes and during dwelling times thermocline. Indeed, in the context of a solarthermal plant with molten salt as the heat transfer.
Molten salt reactors is a comprehensive reference on the status of molten salt reactor msr research and thorium fuel utilization. Safety of thermal energy storage systems for concentrating. This study lists material composition data for two concentrating solar power csp plant designs. Abengoa planned to operate the plant at full load for 6,400 hours each year using only solar energy. Energy and exergy analysis of coal fired power plant. In nuclear technology, molten salt reactors are an interesting option, since they can offer a gamechanging approach to deliver an attractive, highly sustainable option for a zerocarbon society by providing sufficient breeding for a selfsustained longterm operation based on spent nuclear. Two of the projects key industry partners have been pursuing commercial solar power tower plant opportunities in spain. Molten salt makes it possible, and prices are falling fast. Molten salt thermal energy storage materials for solar power generation. Molten salt a boost for solar power generation engineers.
Nevadas new molten salt solar plant will be run by rocket scientists from pratt and whitney. The power plant, also called the super mirror power plant, works by using 12,000 mirrors that concentrate the sunlight onto a receiver at the top of a solar tower, which then heats the molten salt. Studies have been pursued to combine these films with lightweight rigidfoam supports. After selection of the power plant parameters and candidate salts, comprehensive parametric calculations were carried out on performance and cost of various power. A santa monicabased energy firm known as solarreserve in association with a rocket maker in canoga park is planning to set up a much larger plant in this desert area to power around 100,000 homes. Thermocline storage for concentrated solar power diva. This paper presents coal analysis at thermal power plant situated in punjab to determine the characteristics thus, the rank of coal. For many applications that is a very big deal, adds about the crescent dunes project. Life cycle assessment of a coalfired old thermal power plant. Pdf many thermal solar power plants use thermal oil as heat transfer fluid, and molten. Worlds first 247 solar power plant powers 75,000 homes. Archimede solar energy molten salt parabolic trough demo. Such setups allow existing power plant infrastructure like turbines to be kept in use, which reduces the. We can reduce atmospheric co2 emissions by more 30,000 tons for 110gwhyear power generation.
Hightemperature phase change materials pcm candidates. Molten salt power tower cost model for the system advisor. Knowing the life cycle environmental impacts of such power plants is very important since they produce a lot of greenhouse gases. Effects of salt stress on plant growth, stomatal response and. The cold molten salt is heated by the excess wind power with the electrical. Hightemperature phase change materials pcm candidates for thermal energy storage tes applications judith c. With many years of experience in power plant technology, ksb provides reliable solutions for parabolic trough systems, solar power towers and linear fresnel plants. The worlds first molten salt concentrating solar power plant. After exiting the steam generator, the molten salt is sent to the cold salt thermal storage tank step 5 and the cycle is repeated. Box 808, l637 livermore, california 94551 received august 9, 2004 accepted for publication december 30, 2004. A wind power plant with thermal energy storage for improving the utilization of wind energy.
A solar power tower uses a field of tracking mirrors heliostats that redirect sunlight on to a centrally located. The crescent dunes solar energy project is a 110 megawatt mw net solar thermal power project with 1. The steam is then used to power a conventional steam turbine, generating electricity step 4. Effects of salt stress on different maize genotypes braz. Crescent dunes was the first concentrated solar power csp plant with a central receiver tower and advanced molten salt energy storage technology from solarreserve. In this configuration, htf from the solar field is diverted through a heat exchanger that is used to charge the thermal storage system, heating salt from the cold storage up to 385 c and storing it in the hot salt storage tank. If the reactor were to suffer a catastrophic breach, the molten salt would leak out and solidify, trapping the radioactive material inside, containing the radioactive contamination. A wide variety of equipment is available to capture solar energy and use it for space and water heating, and for electricity generation. Typical scheme for a molten salt tower power plant 29. Molten salt storage in concentrated solar power plants could meet the. Pdf a novel modeling of moltensalt heat storage systems in. Concentrating solar power and thermal energy storage. Pdf central receiver system solar power plant using molten. Salt can be used in parabolic trough power plants not only as a heat transfer medium.
For a reference plant with a configuration similar to the andasol 3 power. Jun 20, 2016 the plant is noteworthy for what it accomplishesit is the first truly 247 solar plant in the world. California approves its first molten salt solar power plant. Molten salt thermal energy storage can be heated and cooled daily for at least 30 years. This power plant will consume molten salt, water, suns heat and rocket science to generate electricity. Utilizing the most advanced solar thermal technology worldwide, the crescent dunes plant will be the nations first commercialscale solar power facility with fully. Pdf a wind power plant with thermal energy storage for.
Combining solar power with coalfired power plants, or cofiring. Mar 11, 2016 take a peek inside nevadas new solar farm that generates power 247 with molten salt. Technology next generation molten salt reactor msr proprietary msr design the integral molten salt reactor imsr high technology readiness conducting basicpreliminary engineering work concludes with construction and licensing of the first commercial imsr power plant. In both solar and nuclear power options, molten salt could hold the answer. What is the cycle lifetime of molten salt storage used in.
Molten salt thermal energy storage materials for solar. Although there are some operational problems as described above, molten salts have been used in cracking units in the petroleum. Take a peek inside nevadas new solar farm that generates power 247 with molten salt. Examples of major csp plants using molten salt storage include the 20 mwe gemasolar plant in spain. This month, the italian utility enel unveiled archimede, the first concentrating solar power csp plant in the world to use molten salts for heat transfer and storage, and the first to be fully. Molten salt is used as a heat transfer fluid htf and thermal energy storage tes in solar power plants. Molten salt circulation pump for heliostat central tower with molten salt and heat storage. Power magazine power generation news and jobs in coal. The possible recommendations are also given to improve the performance of coal so that the efficiency of the plant can be improved. Lftrs use a combination of thorium a common element widely found in the earth and fluoride salts to.
Nevadas new molten salt solar plant will produce power long. Nevada solar plant generates power 247 with molten salt. A commonly used thermal salt is the eutectic mixture of 60% sodium nitrate and 40% potassium nitrate, which can be. Having to build a second power plant to back up a solar array is not an ideal solution to say the least. Worlds largest molten salt solar tower plant completed. Aug 04, 2017 why salt is this power plants most valuable asset compressed air energy storage can help keep the grid running and pave the way for renewables.
Electricity generation using molten salt technology charles osarinmwian school of chemical engineering and analytical science, university of manchester, oxford road, manchester m 9pl the anodic release of carbon dioxide gas in the molten salt hallheroult process can be used to power a turbine for electricity generation. W7405erg26 a new approach to the design of steam generators for molten salt reactor power plants a. A team from the nuclear research and consultancy group nrg the netherlands has built the first molten salt reactor powered by thorium in decades. The cycle lifetime of molten salt is usually far beyond the actual lifetime of a concentrating solar power csp plant, where molten salt storage is commonly used. Development of moltensalt heat transfer fluid technology for. A further advantage of concentrating solar thermal systems is the ability to combine the heat transfer fluid.
Technology next generation molten salt reactor msr proprietary msr design the integral molten salt reactor imsr high technology readiness conducting basicpreliminary engineering work concludes with construction and licensing of the first commercial imsr power plant 400 mwth reactor. Phoenix area concentrating solar power plant on line. Operators can take advantage of a new ternary mixture of molten salts based on calciumpotassiumsodiumnitrate introduced by yara. Gema solar plant in spain is the first commercial plant using this technology. Concentrating solar thermal power coupled with thermal energy storage is considered. Solar tower power plants with thermal energy storage are a promising technology. First molten salt power plant approved in california treehugger. Jul 22, 2010 the worlds first molten salt solar plant, which opened in july at priolo gargallo, near syracuse, sicily. A variety of designs is being developed, some as fast neutron types. Energy and exergy analysis of coal fired power plant energy and exergy analysis of coal fired power plant h ravi kulkarni 1.
Transatomic power, an mit spinoff, is developing a nuclear reactor that it estimates will cut the overall cost of a nuclear power plant in half. Thoriumfueled underground power plant based on molten. Molten salt reactors and thorium energy sciencedirect. Pdf chile is facing important challenges to develop its energy sector. Dec 16, 2010 first molten salt power plant approved in california the most common complaint lodged against solar power is that say it with me now its only able to provide power when its light outside. With global expertise in power generation, deep understanding of the flow. There is growing awareness that nuclear energy is needed to complement intermittent energy sources and to avoid pollution from fossil fuels.
From the energy scenario we see that approximately 57% of energy is. The htf at solar two, and for salt towers since, is a 60 wt%, sodium nitrate, 40 wt% potassium nitrate blend commonly known as solar salt. High temperature molten salt thermal energy storage, enabling the replacement of fossil fuels and coal fired power plants through reuse of existing energy assets to accelerate the renewable energy transition. Companies such as solarreserve have championed the use of molten salt in solar thermal projects. High efficiency nuclear power plants using liquid fluoride. But, fossil fuels release carbon when burned, and carbon emissions are. The countrys first 100megawatt molten salt solar thermal power plant in dunhuang, northwest chinas gansu province, has successfully generated power. Such power plants run with a twocircuit system with synthetic oil in the collector field and liquid salt in the storage system. Thoriumfueled underground power plant based on molten salt technology article in nuclear technology 15 september 2005 with 168 reads how we measure reads. Electricity generation using molten salt technology.
The aurora plant solves this problem by using molten salt to store power. Waas i this report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the united states government. Neither the united states nor atomic energy commission, nor any of their employees, nor any of. Concentrated solar power csp ranks among the most promising fields of renewable energy sources. A variety of designs is being developed, some as fast. Molten salts fluoride, chloride, and nitrate can also be used as heat transfer fluids as well as for thermal storage. Molten salt reactors updated december 2018 molten salt reactors operated in the 1960s. Thermal energy storage could potentially combine various different process heat applications, such as desalination. During the day, the plant will use more than 10,000 large tracking mirrors, called heliostats, spread over a 4square mile area, to collect and concentrate the suns rays onto a large heat exchanger atop a 500foot tower.
First molten salt power plant approved in california the most common complaint lodged against solar power is that say it with me now its only able to provide power when its light outside. Hadagal 3, abstract increasing demand of power has made keen interest of study to improve the efficiency of power plant. With the worlds need for energy continuing to grow, engineers are looking for solutions that not only increase the efficiency of power generation solutions, but also minimise risks to the environment. Energies free fulltext the interplay between breeding.
Molten nitrate salt development for thermal energy storage. Several parabolic trough power plants in spain and solar power tower developer solarreserve use this thermal energy storage concept. First molten salt solar thermal power plant runs at full. Twotank molten salt storage for parabolic trough solar power. A solar thermal power plant can work only when direct solar radiation is available it is not able to produce. Already existing solar power plants use huge tanks with molten salt as thermal heat storage. Most molten salt design require highly enriched lithium7, which is not currently available in anything. Pdf performance of molten salt solar power towers in chile. I am not sure what this lifetime is, but it is not a limitation to csp plant design. Molten salt power towers were demonstrated in the u. Sicily has just announced the opening of the worlds first concentrated solar power csp facility that uses molten salt as a heat collection medium. They melt down salts for fuel and then use that molten liquid to start the reaction that makes power. This paper reports recent developments of multicomponent molten salt formulations consisting of common alkali nitrate and alkaline earth nitrate. The benefits of a molten salt htf were compared on a basis of levelized electricity cost lec to a reference configuration solar power plant using a synthetic oil htf.749 1250 530 1611 125 1428 908 1125 291 1321 1263 1186 1368 797 941 1049 1390 1388 1649 1100 441 500 1548 581 1620 202 1621 1610 1087 560 507 1360 213 50 906 616 771 327 1236